180 million (estimate)
Three-tier structure - A Federal Government, 36 State Governments, 774 Local Government Administrations
Main Indigenous Languages:
Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba
Christianity, Islam, Traditional
Main Commercial/Industrial Cities:
Lagos, Onitsha, Kano, Ibadan, Port Harcourt, Aba, Maiduguri, Jos, Kaduna, Warri, Benin, Nnewi
Major Industrial Complexes:
Refineries and Petro-Chemicals: Kaduna, Warri, Port Harcourt, Eleme. Iron and Steel: Ajaokuta, Warri, Oshogbo, Katsina, Jos. Fertilizer: Onne- Port Harcourt, Kaduna, Minna, Kano Liquified Natural Gas : Bonny Aluminium Smelter: Ikot Abasi, Port Harcourt
Lagos (Apapa, Tin-can Island), Warri, Port Harcourt, Onne Deep Sea and Hub Port, Calabar (EPZ)
Lagos, Kano, Port Harcourt, Abuja, Enugu, Kaduna, Maiduguri, Ilorin, Jos, Owerri, Calabar, Yola, Sokoto
Over 15,000 km of intercity all weather paved roads, including dual carriage express trunks.
2 main lines (South-West to North-East; South-East to North-West) inter-linked and terminatory at Lagos, Port Harcourt, Kaura Namoda, Maiduguri and Nguru. Major junctions at Kaduna, Kafanchan, Zaria. Gauge: 1067mm; Total length 3505 route km
Hydro-electric: Kainji, Jebba, Shiroro. Thermal and Gas: Egbin (Lagos), Ughelli, Afam, Sapele, National grid for electricity distribution; National pipeline network with regional depots for petroleum products distribution; National network (pipeline) for distribution of gas (under construction)
NAIRA and KOBO N1.00 = l00k (one naira = hundred kobo)
Nigeria is situated in the West African region and lies between longitudes 3 degrees and 14 degrees and latitudes 4 degrees and 140 degrees. It has a land mass of 923,768 sq.km.. It is bordered to the north by the Republics of Niger and Tchad. It shares borders to the west with the Republic of Benin, while the Republic of Cameroun shares the eastern borders right down to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the southern limits of Nigerian Territory. The about 800km of coastline confers on the country the potentials of a maritime power. Land is in abundance in Nigeria for agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.
The Temperature across the country is relatively high with a very narrow variation in seasonal and diurnal ranges (22-36t). There are two basic seasons; wet season which lasts from April to October; and the dry season which lasts from November till March. The dry season commences with Harmattan, a dry chilly spell that lasts till February and is associated with lower temperatures, a dusty and hazy atmosphere brought about by the North-Easterly winds blowing from the Arabian peninsular across the Sahara; the second half of the dry season, February - March, is the hottest period of the year when temperatures range from 33 to 38 degrees centigrade. The extremes of the wet season are felt on the southeastern coast where annual rainfall might reach a high of 330cm; while the extremes of the dry season, in aridity and high temperatures, are felt in the north third of the country.
In line with the rainfall distribution, a wetter south and a drier northern half, there are two broad vegetation types: Forests and Savanna. There are three variants of each, running as near parallel bands east to west across the country. Forests Savanna Saline water swamp Guinea Savanna Fresh water swamp Sudan Savanna Tropical (high) evergreen Sahel Savanna
There is also the mountain vegetation of the isolated high Plateau regions on the far eastern extremes of the country (Jos, Mambilla, Obudu).
The savanna, especially Guinea and Sudan, are the major grains, grasses, tubers, vegetable and cotton growing regions.
The Tropical evergreen rain forest belt bears timber production and forest development, production of cassava; and plantation growing of fruit trees - citrus, oil palm, cocoa, rubber, among others.
POPULATION & LABOUR FORCE
Nigeria is famous for her huge population of about 180 million people - the largest national population on the African continent. This population is made up of about 374 pure ethnic stocks. Three of them, Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba are the major groups and constitute over 40 per cent of the population. In fact, about 10 ethnic linguistic groups constitute more than 80% of the population: the other large groups are Tiv, Ibibio, Ijaw, Kanuri, Nupe, Gwari, Igala, Jukun, Idoma, Fulani, Edo, Urhobo and Ijaw. The gender divide of Nigeria's population, as indicated by the last census in 1991, reflects an unusual inbalance in favour of male dominance; 51% male: 49% female.
However, the more critical population indices concern
- High growth rate - 3.2%; this is affected by decreased infant mortality and high fertility.
- High school age population - over 47% are 15 years and below
- High child dependency ratio - one dependant to one worker for the working age group 25-65.
- Large work force - working age group 15-59 is over 40 per cent of the population.
Due to a massive expansion in the education sector in the last two decades, the coloration and quality of the Nigerian work force has changed to include a large corps of highly trained personnel in mechanical, civil, electrical, electronics, chemical and petroleum engineering and biotechnics. There are at present over 30 Federal and State Universities, some of them specialist -Technology and Agriculture. In addition there are at least 20 Federal and State Polytechnics. Over 70,000 graduates in various disciplines from these institutions every year. Disciplines, apart from pure sciences, engineering and technologies, include social sciences, business studies (management, banking and finance), architecture, environment and urban management studies.
Also, a sizeable Nigerian population has been and is being trained outside the country, in some of the best colleges in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Russia, Japan and China.
Every year, about 2,000 of these Nigerians return home to seek employment or accommodation within the economy.
For the less skilled and unskilled labour, the country depends on the primary and secondary school systems whose annual enrolments are over 3.5 million and 1.5 million, respectively.
RESOURCES: AGRICULTURAL, MINERAL AND MARINE
Nigeria, in addition to its huge population is endowed with significant agricultural, mineral, marine and forest resources. Its multiple vegetation zones, plentiful rain, surface water and underground water resources and moderate climatic extremes, allow for production of diverse food and cash crops. Over 60 per cent of the population is involved in the production of the food crops such as cassava, maize, rice, yams, various beans and legumes, soya, sorghum, ginger, onions, tomatoes, melons and vegetable. The main cash crops are cocoa, cotton, groundnuts, oil palm and rubber. Extractions from these for export and local industrial use include cocoa flour and butter, rubber crumb, vegetable oil, cotton fibre and yarn. The rain forests have been well exploited for timber and wood products of exotic and popular species.
Oil and Gas, by value, are the most important minerals. They are exploited and produced in the Niger Delta basin and off-shore on the continental shelf and in the deep-sea of the territorial waters. Nevertheless, there are significant non-oil mineral deposits on land many of which have been identified and evaluated: coal, iron ore, gypsum, kaolin, phosphates, lime -stone, marble, columbine, baryte and gold.
The Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria was promulgated on 5 May 1999, and entered into force on 31 May. The main provisions are summarized below
Nigeria is one indivisible sovereign state, to be known as the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Nigeria is a Federation, comprising 36 States and a Federal Capital Territory. The Constitution includes provisions for the creation of new States and for boundary adjustments of existing States.
The legislative powers of the Federal are vested in the National Assembly, comprising a Senate and a House of Representatives. The 109-member Senate consists of three Senators from each State and one from the Federal Capital Territory, who are elected for a term of four years. The House of Representatives comprises 360 members, representing constituencies of nearly equal population as far as possible, who are elected for a four-year term. The Senate and House of Representatives each have a Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members of the House from among themselves. Legislation may originate in either the Senate or the House of Representatives, and having been approved by the House in which it originated by a two-thirds majority, will be submitted to the other House for approval, and subsequently presented to the President for assent. Should the President withhold his assent, and the bill returned to the National Assembly and again approved by each House by a two-third majority, the bill will become law. The legislative powers of a State of the Federation will be vested in the House of Assembly of the State. The House of Assembly of a State will consist of three or four times the number of seats that the State holds in the House of Representatives (comprising not less than 24 and not more than 40 members).
The executive powers of the Federation are vested in the President, who is the Head of State, the Chief Executive of the Federation and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federation. The President is elected for a term of four years and must receive not less than one-quarter of the votes cast at the Federal Capital Territory. The President nominates a candidate as his associate from the same political party to occupy the office of Vice-President. The President subject to confirmation nominates the Ministers of the Government of the Federation by the Senate. Federal executive bodies include the Council of State, which advises the President in the exercise of his powers. The executive powers of a State are vested in the Governor of that State, who is elected for a four-year term and must receive not less than one-quarter of votes cast in at least two-third of all local government areas in the State.
The judiciary powers of the Federation are vested in the courts established for the Federation, and the judicial powers of a State in the courts established for the State. The Federation has a Supreme Court, a Court of Appeal and a Federal High Court. Each State has High Court, a Sharia Court of Appeal and a Customary Court of Appeal. Chief Judges are nominated on the recommendation of a National Judicial Council.
The States are divided into 774 local government areas. The system of local government by democratically elected local government councils is guaranteed, and the Government of each State will ensure their existence. Each local government council within the State will participate in the economic planning and development of the area over which it exercises authority.
MAIN THRUST OF NIGERIA'S TRADE AND INDUSTRIALISATION POLICY
Nigeria's current industrial policy thrust is anchored on a guided dc-regulation of the economy and Government's dis-engagement from activities which are private-sector oriented, leaving Government to play the role of facilitator, concentrating on the provision of incentives policy and infrastructure that are necessary to enhance the private sector's role as the engine of growth. The industrial policy is intended to:
- generate productive employment and raise productivity;
- increase export of locally manufactured goods;
- create a wider geographical dispersal of industries;
- improve the technological skills and capability available in the country;
- increase the local content of industrial output by looking inward for the supply of basic; and
- intermediate inputs; attract direct foreign investment; and increase private sector participation.
The Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Acts which hitherto regulated the extent and limits of foreign participation in diverse sectors of the economy were repealed in 1995. The principal laws regulating foreign investments now are, the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Decree and the Foreign Exchange (Monitoring and Miscellaneous Provisions) Decree, both enacted in 1995.
Given the need to stabilize the banking and finance sectors, and promote confidence in these vital institutions, the Failed Banks (Recovery of Debts) and Financial Malpractices in Banks decrees of 1994 were put in place. The Investment and Securities Decree was also promulgated to update and consolidate capital market laws and regulations into a single code.
Under the Privatization and Commercialization law of 1988, the government successfully sold its holdings in industrial enterprises and financial institutions, and such divestments were made by way of "Offers for Sale" on the floors of the Exchange, so that ultimate shareholdings in such enterprises could be widespread. However, government retained full control of the public utility service corporations.
The 1997 Budget proposed the repeal of all existing laws that inhibit competition in certain sectors of the Nigeria economy. Consequently, with the promulgation of the Public Enterprises Promotion and Commercialization Decree in 1998, private sector investors (including non-Nigerians) will now be free to participate in and compete with government-owned public utility service corporations in the areas of telecommunications, electricity generation, exploration of petroleum, export refineries, coal and bitumen exploration, hotel and tourism.
As a policy objective, the liberalization and deregulation of the exchange control regime is designed to facilitate and enhance trading activities. Items on the import prohibition list have been drastically reduced, with government opting to utilise tariff structures to protect end-user product pricing of local industries and discourage frivolous imports. In 1998, the import prohibition list was reduced to 11 items namely: maize, sorghum, millet, wheat flour, vegetable oils (excluding linseed and castor oils used as industrial raw materials), barytes and bentonites, gypsum, mosquito repellent coils, domestic articles and wares made of plastic materials (excluding babies' feeding bottles), retreaded / used tyres, gaming machines.